1664-surgeons-1 1664-surgeons-2       

SIGNED AS WITNESSES BY TWO EARLY NEW FRANCE SURGEONS

PELLETIER, François.   D.s., Quebec, 11 June 1664. 2 p. sm. 4to.

Power of attorney to collect money due to him. Signed as witnesses by two early surgeons of New France.

[Transcript:]

[in margin:] 11e Juin 1664

Pardevant Le nore Royal a quebecq & tesmoings Soubsignez fut present en sa personne francois Pelletier habitant de ce pays Lequel a fait & constitue Son procureur general & Special la personne de Mathurin girault Marchand de la Rochelle auquel Il donne pouvoir & puissance de pour Led.t Constituant a recevoir la somme de Cent quarante six Livres douze sols a luy deüe par Jean gautier fils de Jean gaultier et de Catherine aubin Ses pere & mere de la paroisse de Nÿe Souspasse a vand en poictou pour les causes contenües en sa promesse De laquelle Led.t procureur sera porteur, du receu s’en tenir par Led.t procureur pour contrat et en laisser quittance & descharge Et au refus de payement faire toutes poursuites & contraints mesme sy besoing est plaider &c. opposer &c. appeller &c. Eslire domicille &c. Substituer au fait de plaidoirie Seulement affirmer en lame dud.t constituant comme Il a faict pardevant Led.t No.re Et tesmoings soubsignez que lad.e so[mme] luy est bien & Loyaument deüe Et quil na receu aucunne chose sur

[p. 2] Icelle & generallement &c. Promettant &c. obligeant &c. fait & passé a quebecq En lestude du nore Susd.t Et son signé Le onsiesme Jour de Juin m6.c Soixante quatre Es presences de Jean Madry me Chirurgien En cette ville de quebecq Et Nicolas Colson Chirurgien tesmoings qui ont signé, Et a led.t Pelletier desclaré ne Scavoir Escrire ny Signer de ce Enquis suivant Lordonnance.

[signed:] Madry; N. Colson; Duquet [with flourish].

[docket-title on verso of conjugate blank:]

Procuration Pelletier a girault march.d 11e Juin 1664.

MADRY, Jean, garrison surgeon at Trois-Rivières, lieutenant and clerk to the chief barber and surgeon of the king; b. c. 1625; d.1669.

He came to Canada around 1651, and from 1653 to 1655 he was garrison corporal and surgeon at the Trois-Rivières fort. In 1657 he was settled in Quebec, and in the autumn of that year he sailed for France, On 2 April 1658 François de Barnoin, chief barber to the king, conferred upon him the master’s status and authorized him to confer it upon others. The letters were however not ratified until November 1663. On the tenth of that month Madry became lieutenant and clerk to Barnoin and thereby obtained powers of surveillance over the surgeons in the colony.

Madry was a churchwarden of Notre-Dame of Quebec in 1663, On 7 October Claude Charron and he became the first two aldermen for the town; they were to lose their function shortly afterwards, to be replaced by a syndic. Madry had also been made one of the directors of the Tadoussac trading organization by a lease dated 4 March, which was annulled on the following 4 October.

On 13 Oct. 1668 he rendered fealty and homage to Bishop Laval in the name of the nuns of the Hôtel-Dieu for their arriere-fief of Saint-Laurent on the Île d’Orléans.

Madry died of drowning 26 July 1669 during a trip to Trois-Rivières and was buried in the paupers’ cemetery of the Hôtel-Dieu at Quebec, according to a wish that he had expressed.

Madry was a good surgeon. He seems however to have been of a rather stubborn, violent, and over-bearing character, if we are to judge by his obstinacy in refusing to accept the guardianship of the under-age children of Guillaume Gauthier, whose cousin he was through his wife, and by the obstacle that he tried to put in the way of Pierre Rouffray’s marriage on the pretext that Rouffray was “his domestic servant, having been assigned to him by order of the Council.” Like several of his colleagues at that time, Madry often appeared before the Conseil Souverain to claim fees that he considered were due him. On several occasions he reappeared as a plaintiff for other reasons, but most of the time in money matters.

On 19 Jan. 1660 at Quebec he had married Françoise Duquet, who was 15 years of age and a sister of the notary Pierre Duquet; he had no children. After the surgeon’s death his wife remarried in 1670; her second husband was Olivier Morel de La Durantaye, a king’s counsellor on the Conseil Souverain. Madry owned the fief of Grand-Pré at La Canardière, which the Jesuits had granted him in 1659. Later he was to build on it a house which was called the Château Bigot.

Gabriel Nadeau (DCB)

Reference to Colson was found in the biography of BOUCHARD, Étienne, surgeon; b. c. 1622 in the parish of Saint-Paul, Paris, son of Pierre Bouchard and Nicole Charland; d. 1676 in Montreal.

On 10 May 1653 Bouchard, who ordinarily lived in the town and duchy of Épernon, entered into an agreement with Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve and Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière to act as a surgeon for the settlement of Montreal for a period of five years. He arrived in Canada 22 Sept. 1653, at the same time as two other surgeons, Louis Chartier and Pierre Piron. Having received authorization to break his 1653 contract, Bouchard made an agreement with a group of settlers of Ville_Marie on 3 March 1655, whereby he undertook to give treatment to them and to their families in exchange for 100 sous paid annually in two instalments by each settler.

His practice must have been extensive. He first had in his service Jean Auger, dit Le Baron, who left him 16 Aug. 1656. On 2 Feb. 1660 he engaged François Caron as surgeon’s aid, and, on 15 November of the same year, Nicolas Colson as journeyman_surgeon. Colson left him at a date unknown, but certainly not after 26 July 1664, when he was in the employ of Jean Madry. On 5 August of the following year Bouchard replaced him with Gilles Devennes. Bouchard’s last professional act was performed with Jean Martinet de Fonblanche, as an officer of the surgeons’ guild.

Bouchard had married Marguerite Boessel at Quebec on 6 Aug. 1657; they had seven children, of whom at least three survived their father. When he died at his colleague Martinet’s home, 19 July 1676, he was a sick man, abandoned by his wife and separated from his children. He had been a doctor at the Hôtel-Dieu.

Gabriel Nadeau (DCB)

DUQUET DE LA CHESNAYE, PIERRE, explorer, royal notary, attorney-general, seigneurial judge, seigneur; baptized 14 Jan. 1643 at Quebec and was buried there on 13 Oct. 1687.

Son of Denis Duquet and Catherine Gauthier, Pierre was one of the first pupils of the Jesuit college of Quebec. The Journal des Jésuites stresses on different occasions the role that he played in the musical portion of the religious ceremonies.

Shortly after leaving the college, Duquet, at the age of 20, bought the registry of the notary Guillaume Audouart, whom he succeeded as royal notary. His commission, dated 31 Oct. 1663, made him the first Canadian-born notary.

At this time Duquet had only just returned from an expedition, directed by Guillaume Couture, which had taken him during the summer a little beyond Lake Nemiskau, about a hundred miles from Rupert River. This was the second attempt by the French to reach Hudson Bay by land.

Like most of the notaries of his period, Duquet had a well-filled career: he was often given power of attorney by litigants, and in addition he was commissioned to carry out several inquiries into irregularities in the liquor traffic. In the autumn of 1666 he went with the Carignan-Salières regiment into Iroquois territory and signed on 17 October the Procès verbal de la prise de possession des forts d’Agnié. Deputy attorney-general (1675–1681), attorney-general (1681–1686), seigneurial judge of Notre-Dame-des-Anges, of the Île d’Orléans and of Orsainville, he was moreover the owner of several properties at Quebec and Lévis and of two seigneuries granted to him in 1672 and 1675. His multifarious occupations prevented him, however, from giving the desired attention to his notarial acts, in which are to be found many errors and omissions. His registry, which is nevertheless very interesting, is preserved in the Judicial Archives of Quebec.

On 25 August 1666 Duquet had married at Quebec Anne Lamarre, who came originally from the parish of Saint-Sulpice in Paris.

André Vachon (DCB)